タケユキ・ツダ

(Takeyuki Tsuda )

Takeyuki (Gaku) Tsuda is an Associate Professor of Anthropology in the School of Human Evolution and Social Change at Arizona State University. His primary academic interests include international migration, diasporas, ethnic minorities, ethnic and national identity, transnationalism and globalization, ethnic return migrants, and the Japanese diaspora in the Americas. His publications include numerous articles in anthropological and interdisciplinary journals as well as a book entitled Strangers in the Ethnic Homeland: Japanese Brazilian Return Migration in Transnational Perspective (Columbia University Press, 2003).

Updated June 2012  

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Global Inequities and Diasporic Return: Japanese American and Brazilian Encounters with the Ethnic Homeland: Part 5 of 10

Read Part 4 >> The global prominence of the United States has also created another, less apparent transnational cultural affinity between Japan and the United States: a small, but younger generation of truly bi-cultural, cosmopolitan Japanese Americans able to be socially accepted in both societies. As Japan become economically prosperous after World War II, large scale Japanese labor migration to the Americas ceased. However, because of its international stature, a small number of Japanese continued to migrate to the United States for educational, professional, or business reasons…

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Global Inequities and Diasporic Return: Japanese American and Brazilian Encounters with the Ethnic Homeland: Part 4 of 10

Read Part 3 >> GLOBAL CULTURAL AFFINITIES AND ETHNIC HOMECOMINGS In addition to their higher social status in Japan, the Japanese Americans benefit from the international prominence of the United States in another way. The Japanese feel more cultural affinity toward Americans and treat them with greater ethnic respect than foreigners from other countries, especially “backward” Third World countries like Brazil, which are not accorded much stature and respect in Japan. The Japanese Brazilians frequently complain about the lack of knowledge of Brazil among Japanese …

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Global Inequities and Diasporic Return: Japanese American and Brazilian Encounters with the Ethnic Homeland: Part 3 of 10

Read Part 2 >> Social Class Interactions: Parochial Versus Cosmopolitan The Japanese Brazilians and Americans also interact with very different groups of Japanese because of their social class position in Japan. Because of their status as unskilled immigrant workers, the Japanese Brazilians primarily interact with working class Japanese, often in smaller, industrial satellite cities and towns (sometimes in the countryside), where many Japanese Brazilians work. Not only are such blue collar Japanese less educated, most have never lived abroad, have little interaction in the pas…

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Global Inequities and Diasporic Return: Japanese American and Brazilian Encounters with the Ethnic Homeland: Part 2 of 10

Read Part 1 >>DIFFERENTIAL SOCIAL CLASS POSITION AND DIVERGENT ETHNIC HOMECOMINGSUnskilled Immigrant Workers Versus Tourists, Students, and ProfessionalsThe main reason for the divergent diasporic homecomings of the Japanese Brazilians and Japanese Americans is their very different social class status as immigrants in Japan, which is a direct product of their countries of origin’s position in the global order and not differences in their socioeconomic background.  Although both groups of nikkeijin are solidly middle class, highly educated (both are overrepresented at top univ…

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Global Inequities and Diasporic Return: Japanese American and Brazilian Encounters with the Ethnic Homeland: Part 1 of 10

INTRODUCTION: GLOBAL HIERARCHIES AND ETHNIC RETURN MIGRATION There has been considerable recent interest in ethnic homecomings, not just by immigrants who have lived abroad for decades, but also by their later generation diasporic descendants (Long and Oxfeld 2004, Markowitz and Stefansson 2004, Münz and Ohliger 2003, Rock and Wolff 2002). In contrast to first generation immigrants who return to their countries of birth, the ethnic homecomings of these later generation diasporic descendants who return to their countries of ethnic origin are fraught with difficulties. Although ethnic…

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