Enduring Communities

Enduring Communities: The Japanese American Experience in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah is an ambitious three-year project dedicated to re-examining an often-neglected chapter in U.S. history and connecting it with current issues of today. These articles stem from that project and detail the Japanese American experiences from different perspectives. 

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Betrayal on Trial: Japanese American "Treason" in World War II - Part 3 of 4

>> Part 2

E. Criminal Intent Vanishes on the Road to Trial

It was also the last day that anyone in the government gave more than fleeting thought to what the actual intent of the Shitara sisters might have been. In order to prove the sisters guilty of treason, the government would have to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that in helping Haider and Loescher escape from Camp Trinidad, they intended to give aid and comfort to an enemy of the United States. In late 1943 and early 1944, the law was clear that a person who helps an enemy …

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Four Hirabayashi Cousins: A Question of Identity - Part 1 of 5

The sudden onset of World War II on December 7, 1941, thrust the issue of identity to the forefront for all Japanese Americans. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 authorizing the War Department to prescribe military areas from which any or all persons might be excluded. This order served as the basis for Lt. Gen. John L. DeWitt to issue the curfew and exclusion orders. Public Proclamation No. 3 established a curfew from 8:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M. for Japanese Americans in Military Area No. 1, which covered the western portions of Washington, Oregon, …

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Betrayal on Trial: Japanese American "Treason" in World War II - Part 2 of 4

>> Part 1

At first, the photographs seemed little more than a curiosity to the state and federal law enforcement officers who were interrogating Haider and Loescher. The police chief of Las Vegas, New Mexico, decided to keep them as souvenirs, and he showed them around to his friends. One of his friends, however, showed them to the editor of the local newspaper, and he, in turn, gave them to the Denver Post. On Sunday, October 24, 1943, the Post ran three of the photographs on the front page under the headline “German Prisoners Spooned with Jap Girls in …

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An Issei's Six Years of Internment: His Struggle for Justice

My father, Yoshiaki Fukuda, was a minister for the Konko religion. He was born in Nara prefecture in 1898, raised in the village of Kamikitayama, and graduated from Matsumoto College and the Imperial University in Tokyo. He attended the Konko seminary in Okayama ken and came to the United States in 1930 with his wife, Shinko, to do missionary work. He established the Konko Church of San Francisco and became responsible for the Konko Churches in America.

On December 7, 1941, when World War II broke out, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) came to the San Francisco church looking …

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Betrayal on Trial: Japanese American "Treason" in World War II - Part 1 of 4

This Article tells the story of the federal treason trial of three Japanese American sisters for helping their paramours, two German soldiers, to flee from a Colorado prisoner-of-war camp in October of 1943. At the time, the story seemed to confirm the suspicion of national disloyalty that had forced the sisters and tens of thousands of other Japanese Americans from their West Coast homes in the spring of 1942. But a careful review of the record of the case reveals that the women were disloyal only to their husbands, not to their country. The government presented the jury with no …

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Colorado Eric Muller hirabayashi identity issei nisei org:janm Shitara sisters treason trial World War II Yoshiaki Fukuda