Attitudes toward Hikiagesha

Life in Davao, Philippines Kindergarten in Davao, Philippines Evacuated to the Jungle Captured by Guerillas after bombing of Pearl Harbor Family was shipped back to Japan after the war Attitudes toward Hikiagesha Move to Los Angeles First Impressions of the US Life in the Philippines Unique Identity from Having Multiple Backgrounds On Nikkei Identity Returning to the Philippines

Transcripts available in the following languages:

1954 when we applied for US citizenship, that we found out – we found out that we qualified for immigration or permanent residency here, in the United States, so our parents wished to come here. At that time, the returnees were not welcome, and there were a lot of negative attitude toward the returnees. They call it “hikiagesha,” and parents had a good life, and that was the first time that they were able to make decisions on their own, without older brother or head of the family to tell them what to do.

Date: July 12, 2017
Location: California, US
Interviewer: Mitsue Watanabe, Yoko Nishimura, Leighton Okada
Contributed by: Watase Media Arts Center, Japanese American National Museum

hikiagesha immigration philippines United States

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